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冷凝器工作原理以及水冷冷凝器相关知识

人气:1 评论:0 日期:2019-08-30 11:37:38

在制冷系统中,蒸发器、冷凝器、压缩机和节流阀是制冷系统中必不可少的四大件,这当中蒸发器是输送冷量的设备。制冷剂在其中吸收被冷却物体的热量实现制冷。压缩机是心脏,起着吸入、压缩、输送制冷剂蒸汽的作用。冷凝器是放出热量的设备,将蒸发器中吸收的热量连同压缩机功所转化的热量一起传递给冷却介质带走。节流阀对制冷剂起节流降压作用,同时控制和调节流入蒸发器中制冷剂液体的量,并将系统分为高压侧和低压侧两大部分。

In refrigeration system, evaporator, condenser, compressor and throttle valve are the four indispensable parts in refrigeration system, among which evaporator is the equipment for conveying cooling capacity. The refrigerant absorbs the heat of the cooled object to achieve refrigeration. Compressor is the heart, which plays the role of inhaling, compressing and transporting refrigerant vapor. Condenser is a device that emits heat. The heat absorbed in the evaporator is transferred to the cooling medium along with the heat transformed by the compressor power. Throttle valve can reduce the pressure and throttle the refrigerant. At the same time, it can control and regulate the amount of refrigerant liquid flowing into the evaporator. The system is divided into two parts: high-pressure side and low-pressure side. 冷凝器(Condenser),为制冷系统的机件,属于换热器的一种,能把气体或蒸气转变成液体,将管子中的热量,以很快的方式,传到管子附近的空气中。冷凝器工作过程是个放热的过程,所以冷凝器温度都是较高的。

Condenser, as a part of refrigeration system, belongs to a kind of heat exchanger, which can convert gas or vapor into liquid, and transfer heat in the tube to the air near the tube in a quick way. The working process of the condenser is an exothermic process, so the temperature of the condenser is higher.

发电厂要用许多冷凝器使涡轮机排出的蒸气得到冷凝。在冷冻厂中用冷凝器来冷凝氨和氟利昂之类的制冷蒸气。石油化学工业中用冷凝器使烃类及其他化学蒸气冷凝。在蒸馏过程中,把蒸气转变成液态的装置也称为冷凝器。所有的冷凝器都是把气体或蒸气的热量带走而运转的。

Power plants use many condensers to condense the steam from turbines. In refrigeration plants, condensers are used to condense refrigerating vapors such as ammonia and freon. In petrochemical industry, hydrocarbons and other chemical vapors are condensed by condensers. In the distillation process, the device that converts vapor into liquid is also called condenser. All condensers operate by taking away heat from gases or vapors.


原理

principle

气体通过一根长长的管子(通常盘成螺线管),让热量散失到四周的空气中,铜之类的金属导热性能强,常用于输送蒸气。为提高冷凝器的效率经常在管道上附加热传导性能优异的散热片,加大散热面积,以加速散热,并通过风机加快空气对流,把热量带走。

Gas passes through a long tube (usually coiled into a solenoid) to dissipate heat to the surrounding air. Metals such as copper have strong thermal conductivity and are often used to transport steam. In order to improve the efficiency of the condenser, heat sinks with excellent heat conduction performance are often added to the pipeline to increase the heat dissipation area to accelerate heat dissipation, and air convection is accelerated through the fan to take away heat.

一般制冷机的制冷原理是压缩机把工质由低温低压气体压缩成高温高压气体,再经过冷凝器冷凝成中温高压的液体,经节流阀节流后,则成为低温低压的液体。低温低压的液态工质送入蒸发器,在蒸发器中吸热蒸发而成为低温低压的蒸汽,再次输送进压缩机,从而完成制冷循环。

The refrigeration principle of general refrigeration machine is that compressor compresses working substance from low temperature and low pressure gas to high temperature and high pressure gas, then condenses into medium temperature and high pressure liquid through condenser, after throttling valve, it becomes low temperature and low pressure liquid. Low-temperature and low-pressure liquid working substance is fed into the evaporator, which absorbs heat and evaporates into low-temperature and low-pressure steam, which is fed into the compressor again, thus completing the refrigeration cycle.

单级蒸汽压缩制冷系统,是由制冷压缩机、冷凝器、蒸发器和节流阀四个基本部件组成,它们之间用管道依次连接,形成一个密闭的系统,制冷剂在系统中不断地循环流动。

The single-stage vapor compression refrigeration system is composed of four basic components: refrigeration compressor, condenser, evaporator and throttle valve. They are connected in turn by pipes to form a closed system in which refrigerants circulate continuously.


冷凝器的选择包括形式和型号的选择,并确定流经冷凝器的冷却水或空气的流量和阻力。冷凝器型式的选择要考虑当地的水源、水温、气候条件,以及制冷系统总制冷量的大小和制冷机房的布置要求。在确定冷凝器型式的前提下,根据冷凝负荷和冷凝器单位面积的热负荷来计算冷凝器的传热面积,以此来选定具体的冷凝器的型号。

The choice of condenser includes the choice of type and type, and the flow rate and resistance of cooling water or air flowing through the condenser are determined. The selection of condenser type should consider the local water source, water temperature and climate conditions, as well as the total refrigeration capacity of the refrigeration system and the layout requirements of the refrigeration room. On the premise of determining the type of condenser, the heat transfer area of the condenser is calculated according to the condensation load and the heat load per unit area of the condenser, so as to select the specific type of the condenser.

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